1.3. Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms#

1.3.1. Terms from other standards#

a. For the purpose of this handbook, the terms and definitions from ECSS-S-ST-00-01 apply:

Anomaly#
Common cause failure#
Equipment/Unit#
Failure#
Failure mode#
Interface#
Mechanical part#
Part/component#
Quality#
Spacecraft#
Space segment#
System#
Test#

b. For the purpose of this handbook, the terms and definitions from ECSS-Q-ST-30-02:

Failure mode and effect analysis FMEA#
Failure mode, effect and critically analysis FMECA#
Process FMECA#

c. For the purpose of this handbook, the terms and definitions from ECSS-E-ST-33-01:

Mechanism#

d. For the purpose of this handbook, the terms and definitions from IEEE-STD-1220:

Requirement#

1.3.2. Terms specific for the present handbook#

Bayesian inference#

a process of using data analysis to infer properties of an underlying distribution of probability in which the Bayes theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available

Contributing factor#

an event or condition that may have been one of the causes to the occurrence of an undesired outcome

Deep Sub Micron#

corresponds to Integrated Circuits technologies allowing a very high integration of parts but inducing potential new phenomena, e.g. increased sensitivity to radiations and potential decreasing of operating lifetime of the parts

Degradation#

a progressive failure is characterized by the degradation in time - or equivalent time, such as cycles - of an item’s performances (modification of the design characteristics due to a degradation/wear-out process) up to a definitive failure.

Design FMEA#

FMEA in which the design of product is analysed. All potential failure modes due to design errors are identified, analysed in terms of severity, occurrence and detectability on ground, and actions plans are put into place in order to reduce one of these three characteristics to remain within acceptable limits.

EEE part#

a component which performs electrical, electronic or electromechanical (EEE) function and is built with one or more elements assembled together in a manner that they cannot be separated without destroying the component.

Epistemic uncertainty#

results from our poor understanding of the relevant aspects which include statistical uncertainties and models uncertainties

Extrinsic failure#

sudden failure induced by the space environment on the spacecraft elements

Failure mechanism#

the physical process by which an element fails (e.g. electromigration for EEE parts or fracture/fatigue for mechanical parts)

Failure mode and effects summary FMES#

abstract of lower level failure modes with the same effects from the respective lower level FMEA

Failure root cause#

one of multiple factors (events, conditions or organizational factors) that contributed to or created the proximate cause and subsequent undesired outcome and, if eliminated, or modified would have prevented the undesired outcome

Handbook data source#

it corresponds to a document compiling either models or data to be used for reliability calculations

In-orbit return (IOR) data#

it corresponds to reliability information (Failure Rates or mission probability success) obtained through the analysis of in-orbit feedback at different levels

Level of confidence#

it corresponds to the probability for an interval to contain the parameter to be estimated (estimation by interval)

Manufacturer part#

it corresponds to information obtained for a part, a unit or a subsystem through its manufacturing process, its physical production

Miscellaneous item#

either parts or assemblies that can neither be classified as EEE or mechanical parts/units (e.g. due to their EEE-mechanical hybrid aspect or to their complexity)

Mission lifetime#

the time during which the system shall perform the specified mission (functions and performances).

Model uncertainty#

it results from modelling assumptions and simplifications made

New space#

a notion first introduced around 2010-2015, corresponding to an ongoing transformation of the space systems, which is driving new ways to develop space product concerning several notions, among which the overall cost and the resort to the newest technologies in the limits of their applicability for Space

Pertinence#

it corresponds to the consistency between what has been predicted and what can be observed

Physics of failure#

a technique under the practice of design for reliability that leverages the knowledge and understanding of the processes and mechanisms that induce failure to predict reliability and improve product performance. (source: Wikipedia)

Probability density function#

for a discrete distribution, it corresponds to the potential cases for which the variate has the value x

Random failure#

a failure occurring at an unexpected time due to a residual internal part defect or weakness when submitted to normal operational stresses

Reliability prediction#

the process of estimating the reliability of a system or its components under specified conditions or the result of the analysis

Reliability prediction methodology#

it refers to the reliability prediction process and the selection of suitable methods and models

Reliability prediction method#

a process or modelling approach to perform a reliability prediction related to a certain failure event (or several events) based on the information available on it

Reliability prediction model#

a mathematical representation of the real world that is based on suitable methods, data and information, and ready to perform a reliability prediction related to a certain failure event (or several events).

Reliability prediction space application#

application (of a reliability prediction methodology, method or model) for a system that is intended to operate in space.

HF/RF passive part#

electronic component used for radio frequency signal transmission/reception for which there is no external power supply required.

Safe life qualification#

qualification process for a product regarding its capability to sustain its specified design lifetime (degradation(s) compliant with the specification)

Simplified structural reliability method#

it corresponds to a simplified form of structural reliability methods, which needs less knowledge of probabilistic methods to be established and can be solved analytically.

Statistical method#

a technique for which RP models are based on what has been observed on an item in terms of functioning/non-functioning, generally through tests or field return, without further analysis of the potential root cause or failure mechanism

Statistical uncertainty#

it results from limited data samples used to derive a model (e.g. cumulated hours, observed failures) used to derive a model

Structural reliability method#

a class of Physics of Failure techniques which are based on a mathematical model of the failure mechanism(s) for a specific part or item (not limited to structures) and probabilistic modelling of the uncertainties associated with the relevant physical variables (e.g. . the stress-strength interference method for structural parts is a simple example for the usage of structural reliability methods)

Sudden failure#

a failure is sudden when the transition from the normal state (nominal performances of the elements) to the failed state is instantaneous or is very short.

Systematic failure#

a failure, related in a deterministic way to a certain cause, which can only be eliminated by a modification of the design, the manufacturing process or the operational procedures.

System engineering#

an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems which focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, and then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem: operations, cost and schedule, performance, training and support, test, manufacturing, and disposal. (International Council on Systems Engineering INCOSE)

Technological limits#

refers to the highest value for some given characteristics for a reference covering a range of values.

Test data#

it corresponds to reliability data obtained through tests

Wear-out failure#

a definitive failure resulting from progressive degradation of an item’s performances in time due to calendar aging or due to operational and/or environmental stresses

1.3.3. Abbreviated terms#

AC#

Alternative Current

AD#

Applicable Document

AEC#

Automotive Electronic Council

AECMA#

European Association of Aerospace Industries (Association Européenne des Constructeurs de Matériel Aerospatial)

AEC-Q#

Automotive Electronic Council Quality

AF#

Acceleration Factor

ANADEF#

ANAlyse de DEFaillances

AOCS#

Attitude and Orbit Control System

AR#

Acceptance Review

ARINC#

Aeronautical Radio Incorporated

ASIC#

Application Specific Integrated Circuits

BGA#

Ball Grid Array

BiCMOS#

Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

BR#

Bibliographic Reference

BS#

British Standard

BTI#

Bias Temperature Instability

CAMP#

Channel Amplifier

CCD#

Charge Coupled Device

CCF#

Common Cause Failure

CCS#

Common Cause Susceptibility Score

CDR#

Critical Design Review

CECC#

Cenelec Electronic Components Committee

CERDIP#

Ceramic Dual Inline Package

CMOS#

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

CNES#

Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales

COTS#

Component On The Shelf

CoV#

Coefficient of Variation

CPGA#

Ceramic Pin Grid Array

CPLD#

Complex Programmable Logic Device

CRM#

Classical Reliability Method

CRR#

Commissioning Results Review

CTE#

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

CV#

Capacitance Voltage

DAG#

Directed Acyclic Graph

DC#

Direct Current

DD#

Displacement Damage

DEP#

Deployment

DET#

Detectability

DHS#

Data Handling System

DOE#

Design OF Experiment

DRAM#

Dynamic Random Access Memory

DSM#

Deep Sub Micron

DSP#

Digital Signal Processor

Ea #

Activation Energy

ECSS#

European Cooperation for Space Standardization

EEE#

Electric, Electronic, Electro-mechanical

EEPROM#

Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EIA#

Electronic Industries Alliance

ELR#

End-of-Life Review

EM#

Electromigration

EMC#

Electro Magnetic Compatibility

EPPL#

ESA Preferred Part List

EPROM#

Electrical Programmable Read Only Memory

ESA#

European Space Agency

ESD#

Electro Static Discharge

ETA#

Event Tree Analysis

EX#

Extrinsic failure

FCV#

Flow Control Valve

FDIR#

Fault Detection Isolation and Recovery

FET#

Field Effect Transistor

FIT#

Failure In Time

FMD#

Failure Mode/Mechanism Distribution

FMEA#

Failure Mode Effect Analysis

FMECA#

Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis

FMES#

Failure Mode Effect Summary

FOO#

Feasibility Of Objectives

FORM#

First Order Reliability Method

FPGA#

Field Programmable Gate Array

FR#

Failure Rate

FRR#

Flight Readiness Review

FTA#

Fault Tree Analysis

GaAs#

Gallium Arseniure

GaN#

Gallium Nitrure

GEO#

Geostationary Orbit

HCI#

Hot Carrier Injection

HDBK#

Handbook

HET#

Hall Effect Thruster

HF#

High Frequency

HPA#

High Power Amplifier

HW#

Hardware

IC#

Integrated Circuits

IEC#

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE#

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IGBT#

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IOR#

In Orbit Return

IOT#

In Orbit Testing

IPC#

Association Connecting Electronics Industries

I_SA#

SA current

JAN#

Joint Army Navy

JANS#

Joint Army Navy Space

JANTX#

Joint Army Navy Technical Exchange

JANTXV#

Joint Army Navy Technical Exchange

JEDEC#

Joint Electron Device Engineering Council

JEP#

JEDEC Publications

JESD#

JEDEC Standards

JFET#

Junction Field Effect Transistor

LCD#

Liquid Crystal Display

LED #

Light Emitting Diode

LEO#

Low Earth Orbit

LMS#

Least Mean Square Method

LoC#

Level of Confidence

LRR#

Launch Readiness Review

LV#

Latching Valve

MC#

minimal cut set

MCCV#

Maximum Common Cause Value

MCM#

Multi Chip Module

MCMC#

Markov Chain Monte Carlo

MCR#

Mission Closure Review

MDR#

Mission Definition Review

MEC#

Mechanical

MEO#

Medium Earth Orbit

MIL#

MILitary

MIS#

Miscellaneous

MMIC#

Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

MMPDS#

Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization

MOS#

Metal Oxid Semi-conductor

MOSFET#

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

MPM#

Microwave Power Module

MTBF#

Mean Time Between Failure

MTTF#

Mean Time To Failure

N/A#

Not Applicable

NaN#

Not a Number

NAND#

Not AND

NASA#

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASDA#

National Space Development Agency of Japan

NDE#

Non-Destructive Evaluation

NEA#

Non Explosive Actuator

NIST#

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NMOS#

N Channel MOSFET

NOR#

Not OR

NPRD#

Non-Electronic Parts Reliability Data

NRPM#

New Reliability Prediction Methodology

N-STD#

Non-Standard

NSWC#

Naval Surface Warfare Center

O#

Oxygen

O/O#

On/Off

OCC#

Occurrence

ORR#

Operation Readiness Review

PAL#

Programmable Array Logic

PBGA#

Plastic Ball Grid Array

PCB#

Printed Circuit Board

PDF#

Probability Density Function

PDR#

Preliminary Design Review

PEN#

Polyethylene Naphtalate

Process FMEA#

Process Failure Mode Effect Analysis

PHEMT#

Pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor

PL#

PayLoad

POD#

Probability Of Detection

PoF#

Physics of Failure

PPM#

Parts Per Million

PPS#

Polyphenylene Sulfide

PROM#

Programmable Read Only Memory

PROP#

Propulsion

PRR#

Preliminary Requirements Review

PT#

Pressure Transducer

PTFE#

Teflon

PTH#

Pin To Hole

PWR#

Power

PYRO#

Pyrotechnics

QA#

Quality Assurance

QR#

Qualification Review

RAMS#

Reliability Availability Maintainability Safety

RBD#

Reliability Block Diagram

REF#

Reference

RF#

Random Failure/Radio Frequency

RH#

Relative Humidity

RP#

Reliability Prediction

RPDSM#

Reliability Prediction Data Sources and Methodologies

RPN#

Risk Priority Number

RUL#

Remaining Useful Life

RW#

Reaction Wheel

S/N#

Stress / Number of cycles to failure

SA#

Solar Array

SADM#

Solar Array Drive mechanism

SAE#

Society of Automotive Engineering

SCC#

Stress Corrosion Cracking

SCU#

Space Computer Unit

SDIP#

Skinny Dual In Line Package

SEE#

Single Event Effects

SEP#

Single Event Phenomena

SEU#

Single Event Upset

SEV#

Severity

SF#

Systematic Failure

Si#

Silicium

SiGe#

Silicium Germanium

SM#

Stress Migration

SMD#

Surface Mount Device

SnPb#

Tin-Lead solder

SORM#

Second Order Reliability Method

SPF#

Single Point Failure

SRAM#

Static Random Access Memory

SRM#

Structural Reliability Method

SRR#

System Requirements Review

SSPA#

Solid State Power Amplifier

STD#

Standard

STN#

Satellite Telecommunications Network

STRU#

Structure

SW#

Software

SYS#

System

TDDB#

Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown

TFT#

Thin Film Transistor

THER#

Thermal

TID#

Total Ionizing Dose

TM#

Telemetry

TMI#

Payload data transmitting channel

TN#

Technical Note

TNID#

Total Non Ionizing Dose

TRL#

Technology Readiness Level

TTF#

Time To Failure

TVS#

Transient Voltage Suppressor

TWTA#

Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier

UTE#

Union Technique de l’Electricité

UV#

Ultra Violet

WO#

Wear-Out failure